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Fred Johnson

Ozone Hole 2008

Ozone Hole Area Minimum Ozone (million km2) (DU) Maximum Daily Minimum Daily Year Date Value Date Value 2008 12 September  27  04 October 101 http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov   October 31 2008 NASA-The Antarctic ozone hole reached its annual maximum on Sept. 12, 2008, stretching over 27 million square kilometers, or 10.5 million square miles. The area of …

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South America Ozone

The Ozone hole has reached land and population areas in Argentina, Chile and The Falkland Islands since the 1990’s. Ozone levels drop down as much as 70% in some areas. The protective level of ozone has dropped below 150 dobson units in some areas.  The area and population affected including the Argentinean city of Ushaia …

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Antarctic Wildlife

No land-based vertebrate animals inhabit Antarctica. Invertebrates which can tolerate the lower temperatures, exist in the Antarctic Peninsula but are still considered rare. They range from protozoa (single-celled creatures), rotifers, tardigrades and nematodes to arthropods (mainly mites and springtails). The largest invertebrate is the wingless midge (Belgica antarctica), which grows to 12 mm long. Only …

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Ozone Hole 2007

Ozone Hole Area Minimum Ozone (million km2) (DU) Maximum Daily Minimum Daily Year Date Value Date Value 2007 13 September  25.2  24 September 108 http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/sbuv2to/ozone_hole.sht   NASA Data Reveals ‘Average’ Ozone Hole in 2007    18 October 2007-NASA-Data from NASA’s Earth-observing Aura satellite show that the ozone hole peaked in size on Sept. 13,2007 …

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Ozone Layer Depletion Leveling Off

Merged total ozone from GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 from June 1995 until May 2009. Credits: Diego Loyola, DLR 21 September 2009 European Space Agency By merging more than a decade of atmospheric data from European satellites, scientists have compiled a homogeneous long-term ozone record that allows them to monitor total ozone trends on a global …

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Chlorofluorocarbons

How Did the Ozone Hole Come About? Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is a gaseous compound made of three elements, carbon, chlorine and fluorine (and sometimes hydrogen). Manufacturers have used this compound to make cleaning solvents, refrigerants, and aerosol propellants, in some cases, even plastic foams. A few common products include Freon and other refrigerants. However, in recent …

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Dobson Unit

A dobson unit is the most basic measure used in ozone research.One Dobson Unit (DU) is defined to be 0.01 mm thickness at STP (standard temperature and pressure). Ozone layer thickness is expressed in terms of Dobson units, which measure what its physical thickness would be if compressed in the Earth’s atmosphere. In those terms, …

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Bad Ozone

At higher altitudes, where 90 percent of our planet’s ozone resides, it does a remarkable job of absorbing ultraviolet radiation.  In the absence of this gaseous shield in the stratosphere, the harmful radiation has a perfect portal through which to strike Earth.  The amounts of “good” and “bad” ozone in the atmosphere depend on a …

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Australian Skin Cancer

  Australians suffer the highest rates of skin cancer in the world. Each year, around 1,200 Australians die from what is an almost totally preventable disease. Everyone can develop skin cancer; however, some people may be at higher risk than others, due to a range of factors. Australia exposed to more UV Ultraviolet (UV) radiation …

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Dual benefits ozone protocol: protecting Ozone layer and Climate

Press release; 5 March 2007 The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency The 1987 Montreal Protocol – restricting the use of ozone-depleting substances – has helped to both reduce global warming and protect the ozone layer. Without this protocol, the amount of heat trapped due to ozone-depleting substances would be double that of today. The benefits to …

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