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The Ozone Hole 2014


http://www.temis.nl/protocols/o3hole/


http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov

The Antarctic ozone
hole reached its annual peak size on Sept. 11, 2014 according to scientists from
NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The size of
this year’s hole was 24.1 million square kilometers (9.3 million square miles) —
an area roughly the size of North America.

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014
December 1
British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The 2014 ozone hole is
nearly over. It still covered around 6 million square kilometres in late
November, which was average over the last decade. The ozone distribution is
transitting from that of spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern
Ocean and amounts lowest over the continent to that of summer with more uniform
ozone amounts across the continent. Highest ozone values, above 350 DU, are over
the Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of New Zealand, with lowest values,
around 225 DU, in a small residual area over the Weddell Sea. There are
significant differences between the various satellite measurements.
Stratospheric temperatures are rising, with all parts of the ozone layer now
well above the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) formation. Through
most of the ozone layer temperatures are now near the long term average, though
they are colder than the normal in the residual core of the polar vortex. The
polar vortex was a little above average in size at its peak in mid August but is
now shrinking and is near the mean for the time of year over the last decade.
Forecasts of ozone distribution suggest that the 2014 ozone hole is nearly over,
however the transition to summer circulation will not happen before mid
December.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. During
August and September it was generally similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013,
and mostly smaller than the decadal mean. During October and November it has
been around the decadal mean and larger than the holes of 2012 or 2013. By late
November the size had declined to around 6 million square kilometres, remaining
close to the average for the decade. Temperatures in the ozone layer became cold
enough for PSCs to form by May and were generally a little below the long term
mean for most of the winter. They became too warm for PSCs to exist by early
November. The polar vortex has generally been close to the decadal mean in size,
beginning to form in early May, reaching a maximum of around 32 million square
kilometres in mid August, and looking to last into December.

The edge of the ozone hole covered the
southern tip of South America from September 13 to 18, the southern tip of South
America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia from October 7 to 15 and South
Georgia on August 25 to 27, September 28, 29, October 3, 4, 24. It is likely to
do so again around November 1 to 2. The centre of the ozone hole is often offset
from the pole towards the Atlantic. Stations near the edge of the ozone hole
(often those nearest Australia or in the northern Antarctic Peninsula) move from
within the ozone hole to outside it as the polar vortex rotates.

Antarctic Situation at 2014
November 3
British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone hole has passed
its deepest and largest and is slowly beginning to fill, but still covers around
14 million square kilometres (the size of the continent). The ozone distribution
is that of spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and
amounts lowest over the continent. Highest ozone values, around 430 DU, are over
the Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of New Zealand, with lowest values,
around 150 DU, over Dronning Maud Land to MacRobertson Land. There are
significant differences between the various satellite measurements.
Stratospheric temperatures are past their coldest, and a warming is taking
place. All parts of the ozone layer are now above the threshold for Polar
Stratospheric Cloud formation, though such clouds can still persist. Through
most of the ozone layer temperatures are now near to above the long term
average. The polar vortex was a little above average in size at its peak in mid
August but is now shrinking and is a little smaller than the mean for the time
of year over the last decade.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. By late
October the size had declined to around 14 million square kilometres. During
August and September it was generally similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013,
and mostly smaller than the decadal mean. During October it has been around the
decadal mean and larger than the holes of 2012 or 2013. Daily values at Rothera
dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220 DU for the first time on July 17
and did so again on August 6 and 7. The station was within the ozone hole from
August 18 to 26, and from September 6 to October 14. Ozone values at Vernadsky
first dropped below the threshold on August 14 and it was within the ozone hole
from August 18 to 26 and from September 8 to October 12. These edge region
stations move from within the ozone hole to outside it as the polar vortex
rotates. Halley has been within the ozone hole since measurements began at the
end of August but ozone values are beginning to increase. The edge of the ozone
hole covered the southern tip of South America from September 13 to 18, the
southern tip of South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia from
October 7 to 15 and South Georgia on August 25 to 27, September 28, 29, October
3, 4, 24. It is likely to do so again around November 1 to 2.

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014
October 31
British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone hole has passed
its deepest and largest and is slowly beginning to fill, but still covers around
14 million square kilometres (the size of the continent). The ozone distribution
is that of spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and
amounts lowest over the continent. Highest ozone values, around 420 DU, are over
the Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of New Zealand, with lowest values,
around 150 DU, over Dronning Maud Land. There are significant differences
between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are past
their coldest, and a warming is taking place. All parts of the ozone layer are
now above the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation, though such
clouds can still persist. Through most of the ozone layer they are now near to
above the long term average. The polar vortex was a little above average in size
at its peak in mid August but is now shrinking and is a little smaller than the
mean for the time of year over the last decade.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. By late
October the size had declined to around 14 million square kilometres. During
August and September it was generally similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013,
and mostly smaller than the decadal mean. During October it has been around the
decadal mean and larger than the holes of 2012 or 2013. Daily values at Rothera
dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220 DU for the first time on July 17
and did so again on August 6 and 7. The station was within the ozone hole from
August 18 to 26, and from September 6 to October 14. Ozone values at Vernadsky
first dropped below the threshold on August 14 and it was within the ozone hole
from August 18 to 26 and from September 8 to October 12. These edge region
stations move from within the ozone hole to outside it as the polar vortex
rotates. Halley has been within the ozone hole since measurements began at the
end of August but ozone values are beginning to increase. The edge of the ozone
hole covered the southern tip of South America from September 13 to 18, the
southern tip of South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia from
October 7 to 15 and South Georgia on August 25 to 27,  October 3, 4, . It
is likely to do so again around November 1 to 2.


The Ozone Hole Reaches South America 2014

 

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014
October 24
British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone hole is past its
deepest and largest and is slowly beginning to fill. The ozone distribution is
that of spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and amounts
lowest over the continent. Highest ozone values, above 430 DU, are over the
Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of New Zealand to Australia, with lowest
values, around 150 DU, over Dronning Maud Land. There are significant
differences between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric
temperatures are past their coldest, and a warming is taking place. A few areas
in the lower part of the ozone layer remain below the threshold for Polar
Stratospheric Cloud formation. Through most of the ozone layer they are now near
to above the long term average. The polar vortex was a little above average in
size at its peak in mid August but is now shrinking quickly and smaller than the
mean for the time of year over the last decade.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. By mid
October it had declined to around 13 million square kilometres. It has generally
been similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013, and mostly smaller than the
decadal mean. Daily values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of
220 DU for the first time on July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7. The
station was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26, and from September 6 to
October 14. Ozone values at Vernadsky first dropped below the threshold on
August 14 and it was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26 and from
September 8 to October 12. These edge region stations move from within the ozone
hole to outside it as the polar vortex rotates. Halley has been within the ozone
hole since measurements began at the end of August but ozone values are
beginning to increase.

Antarctic Situation at 2014 October 17British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone hole is past its
deepest and largest and is beginning to fill. The ozone distribution is that of
spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and amounts lowest
over the continent. Highest ozone values, above 430 DU, are over the Southern
Ocean in a broad swathe south of Australia to South America, with lowest values,
around 150 DU, over Dronning Maud Land. There are significant differences
between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are past
their coldest, and a warming is taking place. A few areas remain below the
threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation. Through most of the ozone
layer they are now near to above the long term average. The polar vortex was a
little above average in size at its peak but but is now shrinking and smaller
than the mean for the time of year over the last decade.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. By mid
October it had declined to around 15 million square kilometres. It has generally
been similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013, and mostly smaller than the
decadal mean. Daily values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of
220 DU for the first time on July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7. The
station was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26, and from September 6 to
October 14. Ozone values at Vernadsky first dropped below the threshold on
August 14 and it was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26 and from
September 8 to October 12. These edge region stations move from within the ozone
hole to outside it as the polar vortex rotates. Halley has been within the ozone
hole since measurements began at the end of August but ozone values are
beginning to increase.

 

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014 October 10British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone hole is probably
past its deepest and largest. The ozone distribution is that of spring with
ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and amounts still near their
minimum over the continent. Highest ozone values, above 450 DU, are over the
Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of Australia, with lowest values, below
150 DU, over Dronning Maud Land. There are significant differences between the
various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are past their
coldest, and a warming is taking place. Some areas remain below the threshold
for Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation. Through most of the ozone layer they
are now near the long term average. The polar vortex has been a little above
average in size for the time of year over the last decade but has passed its
largest.

The 2014 Ozone Hole: The
ozone hole began to form in early August and grew rapidly from mid month,
covering some 23 million square kilometres at its peak in mid September. By
early October it had declined to around 19 million square kilometres. It has
generally been similar in size to the ozone hole of 2013, and mostly smaller
than the decadal mean. Daily values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole
threshold of 220 DU for the first time on July 17 and did so again on August 6
and 7. The station was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26, and has been
since September 6. Ozone values at Vernadsky first dropped below the threshold
on August 14 and it was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26 and since
September 8. These edge region stations move from within the ozone hole to
outside it as the polar vortex rotates. Halley has been within the ozone hole
since measurements began at the end of August and ozone values are near their
minimum.


http://www.temis.nl/protocols/o3hole/

Antarctic Situation at 2014 October 2British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and amounts
near their minimum over the continent. Highest ozone values, above 450 DU, are
over the Southern Ocean in a broad swathe south of Australia, with lowest
values, below 150 DU, over West Antarctica and Coats Land. There are significant
differences between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric
temperatures are past their coldest, and a slow warming is taking place. Some
areas remain below the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation.
Through most of the ozone layer they are now near the long term average. The
polar vortex has been a little above average in size for the time of year over
the last decade and is near its largest.

The 2014 Ozone Hole is near
its deepest and largest. The ozone hole grew very rapidly in area in early
September, soon covering some 20 million square kilometres, and remained near
this size in late September. It has generally been similar in size to the ozone
holes of 2012 and 2013, and smaller than the decadal mean. Daily values at
Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220 DU for the first time on
July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7. The station was within the ozone
hole from August 18 to 26, and has been since September 6. Ozone values at
Vernadsky first dropped below the threshold on August 14 and it was within the
ozone hole from August 18 to 26 and since September 8. These edge region
stations move from within the ozone hole to outside it as the polar vortex
rotates. Halley has been within the ozone hole since measurements began at the
end of August and ozone values are near their minimum.

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014
September 22British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of early spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and
amounts rapidly declining over the continent as ozone depletion takes hold.
Highest ozone values, above 450 DU, are over the Southern Ocean south of the
Indian Ocean, with lowest values, below 150 DU, over the Weddell Sea and Palmer
Land. There are significant differences between the various satellite
measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are past their coldest, and are widely
below the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation. A warming is
beginning to take place in the highest part of the ozone layer. Through most of
the ozone layer they are colder than the long term average. The polar vortex is
a little above average in size for the time of year over the last decade and at
its largest. The ozone hole itself has grown very rapidly in area since the
beginning of September and covered some 18 million square kilometres in mid
September; it has generally been similar in size to those of 2012 or 2013, and
smaller than the decadal mean.

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014
September 12British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of early spring with ozone amounts highest around the Southern Ocean and
amounts declining over the continent as ozone depletion takes hold. Highest
ozone values, above 400 DU, are over the Southern Ocean south of Australia, with
lowest values, below 170 DU, over West Antarctica. There are significant
differences between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric
temperatures are past their coldest, and are widely below the threshold for
Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation. Through most of the ozone layer they are
colder than the long term average. The polar vortex is about average in size for
the time of year over the last decade and nearing its largest. The ozone hole
itself has grown rapidly in area since early August and now covers some 15
million square kilometres; it has generally been a little larger than in 2012 or
2013 .

The 2014 Ozone Hole is deepening. Daily values
at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220 DU for the first time
on July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7. The station was within the ozone
hole from August 18 to 26, and has been since September 6. Ozone values at
Vernadsky first dropped below the threshold on August 14 and it was within the
ozone hole from August 18 to 26. The ozone hole then rotated away from these
edge region stations. Halley has been within the ozone hole since measurements
began at the end of August.

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014 August
29British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of late winter with ozone amounts increasing around the Southern Ocean and
amounts declining over the continent as ozone depletion takes hold. Highest
ozone values are near 450 DU over parts of the Southern Ocean, with lowest
values below 170 DU near Dronning Maud Land. There are significant differences
between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are
nearing their coldest, and are widely below the threshold for Polar
Stratospheric Cloud formation. The polar vortex is about average in size for the
time of year over the last decade and nearing its largest. The ozone hole itself
has grown rapidly in area since early August and now covers some 16 million
square kilometres, larger than the average over the last decade and much larger
than in 2012 or 2013 .

The 2014 Ozone Hole has begun
to form. Daily values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220
DU for the first time on July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7. The station
was within the ozone hole from August 18 to 26. Ozone values at Vernadsky first
dropped below the threshold on August 14 and it was within the ozone hole from
August 18 to 26.

 

 

Antarctic Situation at 2014 August
11British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of late winter with ozone amounts increasing around the Southern Ocean and
amounts declining over the continent as ozone depletion takes hold. Highest
ozone values are above 450 DU over the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand, with
lowest values below 230 DU near Dronning Maud Land. There are significant
differences between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric
temperatures are nearing their coldest, and are widely below the threshold for
Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation. The polar vortex is about average in size
for the time of year over the last decade. Forecasts suggest that the ozone hole
will hit the threshold for formation around August 12, and will grow rapidly in
area thereafter.

The 2014 Ozone Hole has begun to form and daily
values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold of 220 DU for the first
time on July 17 and did so again on August 6 and 7, those at Vernadsky
approached close to the threshold on July 26 and August 6.

Antarctic Situation
at 2014 July 1
8British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic ozone today: The ozone distribution is
that of winter with ozone amounts increasing around the Southern Ocean and lower
amounts over the continent. Highest ozone values are above 400 DU over the
Southern Ocean south of Australia, with lowest values below 230 DU over Palmer
Land to West Antarctica, and over Dome F. There are significant differences
between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are still
cooling, and are widely below the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud
formation.

The 2014 Ozone Hole has begun to form and daily
values at Rothera dropped below the ozone hole threshold for the first time on
July 17.

Antarctic Situation at
2014 July 11
British
Antarctic Survey Ozone Bulletin

Antarctic Situation -Antarctic ozone today: The
ozone distribution is that of winter with ozone amounts increasing around the
Southern Ocean and lower amounts over the continent. Highest ozone values are
around 400 DU over the Southern Ocean south of Australia, with lowest values
below 240 DU over the centre of the continent. There are significant differences
between the various satellite measurements. Stratospheric temperatures are still
cooling, and are widely below the threshold for Polar Stratospheric Cloud
formation. The 2014 Ozone Hole has not yet begun to form.