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Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer

Lessons for Climate Change

Technology transfer–the development of practical applications and commercialization of research–for positive environmental outcomes is the crux of many of the 230 international environmental treaties, and is widely viewed as essential to the Kyoto Protocol and success in the global fight against climate change. Internationally there is considerable debate on the obstacles to transfer of, and change to, environmentally sound technologies particularly for the developing countries yet no comprehensive assessment of what works.

Executive Secretary Marco Gonzalez, Stephen Anderson, US EPA, K. Madhava Sarma, former Ozone Executive Secretary, and Kristin Taddonio, US EPA, during the book launch for "Techonology Transfer for the Ozone Layer: Lessons for Climate Change." Credit: Earth Negotiations Bulletin

To date, one of the most successful environmental treaties—and the source of the greatest achievement in technology transfer for international environmental protection—is the Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987), brokered by the United Nations Environment Programme. The experience regarding the ozone-friendly technologies under the Montreal Protocol is now 15 years old and this landmark book provides a comprehensive analysis of the vast experience of technology transfer of the Montreal Protocol and draw out key lessons for the climate change and other global environmental challenges.

In the case of the Montreal Protocol, the industries that used ozone-depleting substances were very diverse and from many sectors including air conditioning, refrigeration, fire fighting, solvents, agriculture, aerosols and foams as well as thousands of other small applications. There were many large enterprises that had the resources to innovate new ozone-friendly technologies and many small enterprises that needed to be educated on such technologies and how to access them. The authors examine how governments of industrialized countries innovated and implemented many policies, regulations, awareness and education campaigns and financial incentives and disincentives to achieve success.

They also look at the results of 1000 technology transfer investment projects funded under the Montreal Protocol's Multi-lateral Fund and present the lessons, including insider accounts from a variety of sectors, to demonstrate how and under what circumstances technology transfer works for successful environmental outcomes. In addition to covering all aspects of technology transfer, the authors identify generic principles and lessons be identified and applied to the Kyoto Protocol and its post-2012 successor and numerous other critical environmental contexts including marine and air pollution, hazardous waste, biodiversity and desertification among others.

This book provides the only thorough assessment of successful technology transfer of the nature and scale required for combating climate change and other global environmental challenges and is essential reading for all professionals and researchers in government, business, NGOs and academia working on any aspect of technology transfer, ozone layer protection, climate change and environmental protection world-wide.

Stephen O. Andersen is a Director of Strategic Projects in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Protection Partnerships Division and a Co-Chair of the Montreal Protocol Technology and Economic Assessment Panel. He was formerly Deputy Director of the EPA Stratospheric Protection Division where he specialized in industry partnerships, international cooperation and market incentives.

K. Madhava Sarma is a consultant on ozone issues and was formerly Executive Secretary, Secretariat for the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, United Nations Environment Programme.

Kristen Taddonio Taddonio is Manager of Strategic Climate Projects at the US Environmental Protection Agency.


List of Figures, Tables and Boxes; About the Authors; Foreword—Monique Barbut; Preface—Achim Steiner; Acknowledgements; Introduction—Marco Gonzales; 1) Prologue; 2) Contours of Technology Transfer; 3) Background of the Ozone and Climate Agreements; 4) Technology Change in Developed Countries; 5) Military and Space Agency Leadership to Protect the Ozone Layer; 6) Technology Transfer to Phase Out ODSs in Foams; 7) Technology Transfer To Phase Out ODSs in Refreigeration and Air-Conditioning; 8) Technology Transfer to Phase Out ODSs in Aerosol Products; 9) Technology Transfer to Phase Out ODSs on Fire Protection; 10) Technology Transfer to Phase Out ODSs on Solvents; 11) Technology Transfer to Phase Out ODSs in Pest Control; 12) Barriers to Technology Transfer Faced by CEITs and Developing Countries; 13) Awareness and Capacity-Building; 14) Lessons; Appendix 1: Control Measure of the Montreal Protocol; Appendix 2: Indicative List of Categories of Incremental Costs; Appendix 3: List of Project Completion Reports Studies; Appendix 4: A Technology Transfer Agreement; Appendix 5: List of Military ODS Management and Phaseout Initiatives in the US; Appendix 6: Useful Websites for Information on Military Phaseout; Appendix 7) Ozone and Climate Protection Awards Won by Military Organizations; Notes; List of Acronyms and Abbreviations; Glossary; About the Contributors; Index.

“This authoritative and meticulously researched treatise cuts to the heart of the problem: the crucial issues of technology, research, development and diffusion that have been largely lost in the hot air of climate rhetoric.”
-- Ambassador Richard Benedick, US Chief Negotiator of the Montreal Protocol

“The book is extremely valuable reading for policy makers and scholars alike, particularly in the context of the challenge of climate change being faced globally.”
-- R. K. Pachauri, Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

“This book gives an authoritative account of how impossible challenges to transfer of ozone-friendly technologies were overcome for the good of human society.”
-- Mostafa K. Tolba, Under-Secretary General, United Nations, and Executive Director, United Nations Environment Program, 1976-1992

“Imagine what we can accomplish as we continue to transfer technology to protect the climate.”
-- Kathleen Hogan, Director, EPA Climate Protection Partnerships Division

"Imagine the pride of earning the Nobel Prize for warning that CFCs were destroying the ozone layer. Then imagine that citizens, policymakers, and business executives heeded the warning and transformed markets to protect the earth. This book is the story of why we can all be optimistic about the future if we are willing to be brave and dedicated world citizens."
-- Mario Molina, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry and Professor, University of California